Inflammation from the lung is called Pneumonia. Pneumonias may be caused by specific pathogens like Pneumococcus or Klebsiella or by mixed flora which reach the lungs due to aspiration of infected material from the top of the respiratory passages, stomach or exterior. Messy group called aspiration pneumonia. Pneumococcal pneumonia is the most prevalent type in grown-ups. pneumococcal vaccine
Other Organisms causing Pneumonia
This one is more frequently found in debilitated subjects and in hospitalized patients. Respiratory viral infections predispose to staphylococcal pneumonia. May a dreaded complication in children with cystic fibrosis and also patients receiving immunosuppressant therapy. The organisms reach the lung using the blood stream (Pyemia) or along the respiratory paragraphs.
Clinical features: The onset is with mild symptoms, but soon the condition worsens to produce grave toxemia, purulent and blood stained sputum and cyanosis. The lesions are generally multiple, giving rise to thin-walled abscesses. It may frequently spread to the pleura to produce emphysema or pyo-pneumothorax. Signs of lobar consolidation may stop evident. Diagnosis should be suspected of this clinical setting and the presence of toxemia fat via proportion to the pulmonary hints. Gram-staining of sputum and culture reveal the plant structur. Mortality varies from 20-25%.
Treatment: At present most strains of hospitalized-acquired staphylococci produce penicillinase. Hence penicillinase-resistant drugs such as Cephalothin, cloxacillin or vancomycin may be necessary. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment ensures remedy.
Klebsiella Pneumonia (Friedlander’s Pneumonia)
This can be a grave illness seen in patients over the age of 40 quite a few years. Debilitating diseases, alcoholism, and malnutrition predispose this condition. Common site of involvement is the posterior segment of top of the lobe. Problem sets to sudden chills, rigors, fever, dyspnea and cough with gelationous thick sputum streaked with blood. The course may be subacuate or fulminant and fatal. Abscess formation is a common issue. Mortality is high, ranging around 30%.
Once issue is suspected, urgent treatment with Cephalexin 1g, 6h, intramuscular administration should be started. Gentamicin in a dose of 5-8mg/Kg could be added being a second anti-biotic. Treatment may have end up being continued for two main weeks or more to ensure cure.